Hoffman Nick suggests war to be the use of organised violence between two groups pursuing contradictory policies with each group struggling forcefully on a mass scale,usually of at least 1000 deaths,to impose its own policy upon the other.

Causes of war can be psychological,economic,cultural or ideological.

Wars exist as total wars(to annihalate the enemy),regional,civil,liberation(e.g in Algeria&Indochina to out-do colonial repression) or ideological.

According to Aristotle,war is appropriate if the cause is not the concern but the merit of the one waging the war.
Cicero says that war is just so that people can live unharmed in time of peace.
St Augustus condems acts that blameworth war and refers it to as a means of conforming to God’s order of maintaining peace.

The basic postulates of this theory are similar to those contained in the first and second parts of the three parts of the theory. These are:
1. Jus ad bellum
These are rules addressed to the heads of states and apply to the pre-war.
a. must be for the right intent
b. must be declared by a legitimate authority
c. must aim at success
d. must be the last resort
e. must be for a just cause
f. groups must have proportional power

2. jus in bello
this is justice in war-right conduct in war
a. IHL must be respected
b. no reprisal
c. proportionality
d. protection of innocents
e. benevolent quarantine
f. no evil weapons

3. jus post bellum
justice after war
a. termination publicly declared
b. ensure an improving effect
c. rehabilitate institutions
d. compensation to begin reconstruction
e. punshment of triggerers of war
f. equal punishment for soldiers
g. rights vindication

Two groups are made to stay together. Ouer time the develop distinct identities. One group is seen to have a superior mind in accomplishing tasks. During competition for resources the inferior group is streotyped in a manner of diabilogical image,virile image,moral-immoral image or selective inattention.


Posted on August 10, 2012, in HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICTS. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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