HOW THE UN KEEPS PEACE AMONG NATIONS
The process of UN mitigating conflict is conflict intervention. I includes conflict managment, resolution, settlement and transformation. Conflict management is the prevention and limitation of conflict using none violent means which may include prevention of an outbreak. Resolution is finding a solution to resolve the conflict. Settlement is changing the behavior of parties without changing resolving their differences. Transformation is terminating a specific conflict to resolve underlying issues.
ROLE OF UN IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION
1. Peaceful settlement of disputes
2. Peace keeping operations
3. Peace enforcement missions
4. Peace building
Conflict occurs in different stages. This is because it is dynamic over time. Although it can stagnate at one point, conflict will still develop to the different stages. The UN employs the different conflict resolution strategies according to the stage that the conflict is and the phase of the conflict.
Phases are either accelerating or de-accelerating. The stages start from durable peace, as the conflict arises,the stage goes to stable peace,unstable peace, crisis and finally war. During de-accelaration, the inverse of that happens.
During the stable peace period, UN exercises routine diplomacy. During Unstable peace, preventive diplomacy is employed to avoid further accelaration of the conflict. Should the conflict proceed to crisis like during the PEV,crisis diplomacy is used. During war;peacekeeping. When the war epitomises,UN troops are employed in the affected region to enforce peace.. They continue as the conflict goes down to peacekeeping. The UN then sets govt offices and institutions with an aim to post war peace building.
How does UN achieve the aforegoing? Through negotiations, mediation, arbitration, commissions of inquiry, conciliation commissions, judicial procedures and resort to regional agencies.
Negotiation is where the two parties reach a mutual agreement through formal and informal discussions without the question of who is right or wrong. Negotiation can be done through competing for interests,, compromising, accomodating, avoiding, or problem solving.
Parties may adopt the conflict resolution strategies of win-win,win-lose(one party forces the other to conform) or lose-lose.
During securing and enforcing peace,balance of power strategies, arms control, Geneva conventions and and multi-literalism are used as methods by the UN.
Mediation on the other hand is, according to Bercovitch et al 1991, a process where the fighting nation seek the assistance of a body say the UN to change their behavior or settle their conflict without resorting to physical force or invoking the authority of the law.