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IS KENYAN JUSTICE ONLY WHEN RAILA WINS?

A BUILD-UP OF VOTER APATHY BY RAILA ODINGA SUPPORTERS

The current landmark ruling by the Supreme Court of Kenya upholding the declaration of IEBC of the Uhuru Kenyatta presidency has educed a debate among Raila Odinga’s supporters on whether the verdict was just. Majority of the supporters I interviewed think that the ruling was a breach of justice.

A journalism student in the University of Nairobi, who is also a student representative, updated in his Facebook account that,”Raila Amollo Odinga, forever together. Corded I
was, Corded I am and Corded forever I will be,in Kenya justice goes to the highest bidder.” He went on further to say that impugnity will rule Kenya forever after his colleague said,”On my side i have been CORD Partriotic and will continue in the CORD spirit. Only that i have made a vardict to vote
none unless otherwise.” CORD is the accronym for Coalition Of Reforms and Democracy on whose ticket which the former Kenya Prime Minister, 2013 elections first runners up and the elections petitioner was running on.

In his interview with the BBC on phone, Raila conceded defeat and wished president Uhuru well. He however expressed disatisfaction with the Supreme Court saying it had already created voter apathy for the 2017 general elections.

Raila, just like the petition respondents, was represented by among the best legal minds in his petition. Each of the counsels was paid between 20-100 million shillings for the least and highest paid, respectively. Raila had 20 lawyers on his bar. It was however evident from his submissions and those of the respondents that he was most likely to lose the case. Most of his lawyers did not even attend the court proceedings during the oral evidence submissions of the respondents. They went along with their normal business, perhaps certain about the inclination of the case. After the ruling, the whole country was calm except in Kisumu his home city where there were chaos that saw two people killed and twenty injured with property of his supporters being looted,by his supporters.

The utterances of Raila on voter apathy already have created the apathy among his supporters. A page in Facebook has been created and people who are swearing never to vote again have been joining the page. What they may not be aware of iis that by not voting they will have already voted, for the candidate they did not want. By the time of publishing this story.there are over 23,000 members. The link of the page is
m.facebook.com/iwillnevervoteinakenyanelection?_mn_=11&refid=28&ref=stream&_ft_=qid.5861648006649752259%3Amf_story_key.3212789903056344385

As we remain pondering whether justice is only when Raila wins, president Kenyatta is now left with the big task of uniting Kenyans despite their political orientation and building the confidence of the rival voters again,at least in a five-years time frame.

HUMAN RIGHTS; ARE THEY REALLY RESPECTED BY THE GOVERNMENT?

Abridgement of citizens’ right to change their government in the last national election; unlawful killings, torture, rape, and use of excessive force by security forces; mob violence; police corruption and impunity; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention; arbitrary interference with the home and infringement on citizens’ privacy; prolonged pretrial detention; executive influence on the judiciary and judicial corruption; restrictions on freedom of speech, press, and assembly; forced return and abuse of refugees, including killing and rape; official corruption; violence and discrimination against women; violence against children, including female genital mutilation (FGM); child prostitution; trafficking in persons; interethnic violence; discrimination based on ethnicity, sexual orientation, and HIV/AIDS status; lack of enforcement of workers’ rights; forced and bonded labor; and child labor, including forced child labor.

The report outlines the following:

RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

 Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom From:

a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life

There were several reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary and unlawful killings, included politically motivated killings, during the year. The government took only limited action in enforcing the law against security forces suspected of unlawfully killing citizens.  

On March 11, seven administration police executed seven taxi drivers in the Kawangware slums west of Nairobi. The seven men were arrested, appeared in court on March 31, and were charged on December 11. A trial had not begun by year’s end.

In July, according to Amnesty International, a 74-year-old unarmed man was shot and killed by police after verbally protesting the beating of a woman during a forced evacuation of a Nairobi settlement. There were no developments in the case by year’s end.

In September administration police killed 14 persons and dumped their bodies in Kinale Forest. Police made no statement about the killings although there were reports that three of the victims were known criminals. Members of Parliament (MP) tasked the Minister of Security with issuing a report on the murders although no report had been produced by year’s end.

On November 6, a police officer shot and killed 10 persons, including two fellow officers, while allegedly looking for a woman who infected him with HIV. There were no developments in this case by year’s end.

In February 2009 Philip Alston, the UN special rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary, or arbitrary executions, released a report that found ‘that police in Kenya frequently execute individuals and that a climate of impunity prevails. The rapporteur also reported. The existence of poke death squads operating on the orders of senior police officials and charged with eliminating suspected leaders and members of criminal organizations. The government rejected the findings of the Alston report and filed a protest with the UN. According to media reports, however, the Ministry of Internal Security acknowledged in a February 2009 letter to the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR) that police had killed 308 youths in 2008.

In 2008 the government formed the Commission of Inquiry into Postelection Violence (CIPEV) as part of the internationally mediated political settlement. The CIPEV documented 405 gunshot deaths during the postelection period; it attributed the vast majority of these to police. The final CIPEV report recommended that the government establish a special tribunal to investigate individuals suspected of such violence; however, no local tribunal was established, and the government still had not systematically investigated or prosecuted individuals suspected of postelection violence through other means by year’s end. However, on December 15, the chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) announced that he had asked a pretrial chamber to issue summonses for six Kenyan nationals on charges of crimes against humanity for their alleged role in the 2007-08 postelection violence.

In March 2009 unidentified gunmen, reportedly acting on orders from the former commissioner of police, shot and/killed Oscar Kamau King’ara, the executive director of the local nongovernmental organization (NGO) Oscar Foundation Free Legal Aid Clinic Kenya (OFFLACK), and Paul Oulu, OFFLACK’s program coordinator. In 2008 OFFLACK reported that police were linked with the continued disappearance and deaths of suspected members of the banned Mungiki criminal organization. Police threatened and intimidated witnesses to the killings, and four witnesses went into exile. The prime minister requested international assistance to investigate the murders, but the minister for foreign affairs subsequently rejected such assistance. No credible investigation had been conducted by year’s end, and none was expected.

Security forces continued to claim that police must shoot to kill to defend themselves when confronted by armed suspects, for example. in September 2009, the media reported that the district commissioner for Murang’a  East District issued  “shoot to kill” order   against suspected Mungiki members, and in October 2009 a district commissioner  in marakwet announced a “shoot to kill” policy against suspected armed bandits. The policy first was enunciated in 2005 and later reiterated in 2007, after armed criminals killed 43 police officers in the line of duty.

On March 10, police reportedly killed seven suspected members of the Mungiki in a police operation in Nairobi. Police claimed that a gun battle had started after police shot at a mob that was attacking motorcyclists to extort motorcycle taxi drivers.

During the year there were reports that persons died while in police custody or shortly thereafter,

some as a result of torture. For example, the Daily Nation reported in January that a 24-year-old man was tortured to death while undergoing police interrogation regarding a livestock theft at the Ngomeni Police Station. No further information was available at year’s end.

In November the Standard newspaper reported that a man, arrested at a bar for an altercation with a police officer, was dragged to a police station by the officer and chained and beaten to death. No further information was available at year’s end.

 b. Disappearance

Unlike in the previous year, there were no reports of disappearances or politically motivated abductions. There were no developments in the January 2009 case in which a journalist was abducted and killed. There were no developments in the September 2009 case in which the Muslim Human Rights Forum alleged that five Muslims suspected by the government of involvement in terrorist activity were abducted by the Antiterrorism Police Unit (ATPU) and subsequently disappeared. The ATPU denied the allegations.

The KNCHR, the IMLU and Western Kenya Human Rights Watch (WKHRW) reported that the government failed to investigate disappearances in connection with the 2008 security force operation in Mount Elgon and the crackdown on the Mungiki criminal organization in 2008.

Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

The constitution and law prohibit such practices; however, the legal code does not define torture and provides no sentencing guidelines, which functionally bars prosecution for torture. Police frequently used violence and torture during interrogations and as punishment of pretrial detainees and convicted prisoners. According to the IMLU, physical battery was the most common method of torture used by the police.

Human rights organizations, churches, and the press reported numerous cases of torture and indiscriminate police beatings.

In 2008 the IMLU receive 772 cases alleging torture by security officers, compared with 397 in 2005, although it noted that the number of torture cases was likely higher.

There were allegations of rape by security forces, including the rape of women in prisons, as well as in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees and among asylum seekers crossing into the country from Somalia.

For example, in March Human Rights Watch (HRW) conducted 102 interviews regarding sexual violence in the Dadaab refugee camps. In 46 of the cases, police were accused of gang-raping women in the camps or on their way to the camps. The Center for Rights Education Awareness alleged in 2008 that policemen raped women in the Kibera slum in Nairobi and those seeking refuge in police stations.

Police use of excessive force to disperse demonstrators resulted in injuries (see section 2b.). Due to a shortage of civilian state prosecutors in the legal system (72 civilian prosecutors nationwide compared to 315 police prosecutors), police were responsible for investigating and prosecuting all crimes at the magistrate court level; civilian prosecutors handled cases at the high court level. Police routinely ignored evidence of security force torture provided by the IMLU and other human rights organizations. In most cases allegations of torture were not fully investigated and the perpetrators not charged.

As part of reforms agreed to in the National Accord in July 2009 the government established the Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission (TJRC), whose mandate included the investigation of alleged cases of torture since independence. The TJRC had collected statements but had not conducted any hearings by year’s end.

The government did not investigate alleged cases of torture by security forces that were documented by the IMLU and HRW from the Mount Elgon and El Wake security operations in2008. The government denied that security forces engaged in torture and refused to prosecute individuals alleged to have participated in torture during the two operations.
From the context of human rights in Kenya and their foundations in the Kenyan constitution and the UN UDHR, one would conclude that the leadership and the citizens would exercise full commitment and uphold the said-rights and freedoms. This is because; these are the preconditions for a dignified life between the state and the individual, and among individuals. However, this has not always been the case, as discussed above.

THE MARRIAGE BETWEEN UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (UNUDHR) AND THE CURRENT CONSTITUTION OF KENYA

The UDHR was adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217A (III) of  10 December 1948. On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all member countries publicize the text of the Declaration and to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories.

The Universal Declaration, it must be noted, is not a treaty. It was meant to proclaim a common standard of achievement for all Peoples and all nations rather than enforceable legal obligations. Nevertheless, partly because of an 18- year delay between its adoption and the completion for signature and ratification of the two Covenants, the Universal Declaration has acquired a status jurisdiction more important than originally intended. It has been widely used, even by national Courts, as a means of judging compliance with human rights obligations under the UN Charter.

Article 1 of the declaration states:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS 

Kenya had been using the same constitution that was left by the colonialists since independence in 1963 until a new one was adopted on 27th August 2010 during the promulgation. However, though
the two constitutions may seem to differ, most of the content in the old one is still contained in the new one.

On May 4 2010, citizens approved a new constitution in a national referendum, widely considered to be free and fair. Some of its elements entered into force immediately, but full implementation was expected to take several years. It was expected that if fully implemented, it would result in significant changes to the government’s structure, including greater checks on executive power, the elimination of a prime minister, greater devolution of power to the counties, and creation of a second legislative chamber. There were instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of civilian control.

The constitution and the UN UDHR have been violated over the years by successive Kenyan regimes. Examples are shown below:

Chapter four of the constitution of Kenya is about the rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens. Part one of the chapter regards the general provisions relating to the bill of rights. Article 25 states:

Despite any other provision in this Constitution, the following rights and fundamental freedoms

shall not be limited—

(a)   Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;

 

During the first post-independence presidency of Kenya, under President Jomo Kenyatta, state security forces harassed dissidents and were suspected of complicity. Since 2002, under the Mwai Kibaki presidency, politically motivated human rights violations have diminished, but other serious human rights abuses persist, a great many at the hands of security forces, particularly the police. The police force is widely viewed as the most corrupt entity in the country, given to extorting bribes, complicity in criminal activity, and using excessive force against both criminal suspects and crowds. Most police who commit abuses still do so with impunity. Prison conditions remain life threatening.

(b) Freedom from slavery or servitude;

(c) The right to a fair trial; and

(d) The right to an order of  habeas corpus  (latin:) We command that you have the body’, It is a legal action through which a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention, that is, detention Lacking sufficient cause or evidence.

In several murders of prominent personalities deemed as threats to his regime, including Pio Gama Pinto, Tom Mboya and J.M. Kariuki. MP and Lawyer C.M.G. Argwings-Kodhek and former KADU leader and Minister Ronald Ngala also died, in suspicious car accidents.

 

Article 26 of the constitution states that:

(1) Every person has the right to life.

In several murders of pro1minent personalities deemed as threats to his regime, including Pio Gama Pinto, Tom Mboya and J.M. Kariuki. MP and Lawyer C.M.G. Argwings-Kodhek and former Kadu Leader and Minister Ronald Ngala also died, in suspicious car accidents. On 5 March 2009, two of the human rights investigators involved in the investigations documented in the report, Oscar Kamau King’ara and John Paul Oulu, were assassinated. Their assassinations were attributed by non-governmental organizations to the security forces.

On 3 June 2007, two days after President Mwai Kibaki stated that Mungiki members “should expect no mercy”, about 300 Mungiki members were arrested and at least 20 killed. John Michuki, at the time Minister for Internal Security, publicly stated following the killings, “We will pulverize and finish them off. Even those arrested over the recent killings, I cannot tell you where they are today. What you will certainly hear is that so and so’s burial is tomorrow”.

(2) The life of a person begins at conception.

(3) A person shall not be deprived of life intentionally, except to the extent authorized by this

      Constitution or other written law.

In the KNCHR’s Cry of Blood — Report on Extra-Judi ‘ I Killings and Disappearances published in September 2008, the KNCHR reported these in  their key finding stating that the forced

disappearances and extrajudicial killings appeared to be official policy_ In November 2008, Wikileaks brought wide international attention to the cry of blood . In the report, the KNCHR’s first key finding was that, the evidence gathered by the KNCHR establishes patterns of conduct by the Kenya Police that may constitute crimes against humanity.

(4) Abortion is not permitted unless, in the opinion of a trained health professional, there is need for emergency treatment, or the life or health of the mother is in danger, or if permitted by any other written law.

Every year, about 380,000 Kenyan women die of abortion-related complications. This occurs due to unprofessional, quirk doctors in backstreet locations, and the reliance of untrained midwives to handle the procedure.

Article 27 of the constitution states:

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law.

(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms.

(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.

Violence and discrimination against women are rife. The abuse of children, including in forced labor and prostitution, is a serious problem. Female genital mutilation (FGM) remains widespread, despite 2001 legislation against it for girls under 16. The abuse of women and girls, including early marriage and wife inheritance, is a factor in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).

Article 28 of the constitution states:

  Every person has inherent dignity and the right to have th dignity respected and protected.

Between 1989 and 1991, Kenya saw one of the worst human rights violations in its history. Moi accused advocates of multiparty politics of subversion, and thereby got a fresh excuse for detaining a new generation of his critics. A number of the champions of multiparty politics–John Khaminwa, Raila Odinga, Mohammed Ibrahim, Gitobu Imanyara, Kenneth Matiba and Charles Rubia–among others, were detained under inhuman conditions and without trial.

Apart from police and penal system abuses, infringernents of rights in the course of’ legal proceedings are widespread, despite recent pressure on judicial personnel. Freedoms of speech and of the press continue to be compromised through various forms of harassment of journalists and activists.

 29 Every person has the right to freedom and security of the person, which includes the right not to be—

(a) deprived of freedom arbitrarily or without just cause;

 (b) detained without trial, except during a state of emergency, in which case the detention is subject to Article 58;

 Detentions and political trials, torture, arbitrary arrests and police brutality reminiscent of the colonial era had become common during Moi’s tenure. He perceived human rights generally as alien and Euro centric conceptions inconsistent with African values and culture. He viewed the pro-democracy and human rights advocates in Kenya as unpatriotic, disloyal, and ungrateful individuals influenced by what he calls foreign masters.

(c) Subjected to any form of violence from either public or private sources;

(d) subjected to torture in any manner, whether physical or psychological;

The emergence of the little known clandestine London based movement, Mwakenya, set the stage for more widespread human rights violations by his Administration. In 1986 alone, 100 people were arrested and detained for their alleged association with Mwakenya, the movement started by some Kenyans in Europe who had fled Moi’s oppression, demanded, inter alia, social justice and respect for human rights. Even though Moi made a big issue out of the movement, there was no tangible evidence of a well organized group in the country that threatened Kenya’s national security and which would have warranted the massive arbitrary arrest, torture, and detention without trial of the suspects.

Under former president Daniel Moi, security forces regularly subjected opposition leaders and pro-democracy activists to arbitrary arrest, detention without trial, abuse in custody, and deadly force.

38. (1) Every citizen is free to make political choices, which includes the right—

(a) to form, or participate in forming, a political party;

(b) to participate in the activities of, or recruit members for, a political party; or

(c) to campaign for a political party or  cause

A few years after taking over the presidency, Moi began  to exercise his style of authoritarianism by detaining  a number of Kenyans critical of his government. The extent to which detention had been consistently used as an  instrument for suppressing  Moi’s out spoken opponents in the 1980s and 1990s was enormous. Some of these detainees were former or sitting MPs arrested for demanding, among other things, the introduction of multiparty politics.

After the university staff union was banned, University of Nairobi faculty members, Willy Mutunga and Katana Mukangi, were detained for what Moi called “over-indulgence in politics”. This was just the beginning of the crackdown on Kenyans by his administration in the 1980s, Apart from detaining the UASU leaders, the passports of lecturers considered to be critical of his rule were seized.

Kenya made some progress in 2003, when it set up a national human rights institution, the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR), with a mandate to ensuring Kenya’s compliance with international human rights standards. Also, parliament passed the Children’s Act to ensure the protection of minors, as well as the Disability Act, outlawing discrimination against the disabled.

A KOREAN MAN MEETS A KIKUYU

THEIR INTERESTING CONVERSATION OF HOW LANGUAGE BEGETS CULTURE.

The players of both teams matched into pitch thrasonically, probably because of their smart uniforms, each of them seeming to be convivial. For a few minutes, everything went taciturn in respect for the football anthem, but soon the whole stadium was as noisy as a menagerie .The players amicably greeted their rivals, then took their seats and made an orison before taking their positions waiting for the referee’s whistle to start the game. In no time, one team would be full of hauteur, while the other would fly back to their domiciles in melancholy without any reward, but predicting the winning team at this time was an enigma. The teams were both well prepared and confident of winning the deer trophy that they had both contributed to it purchase. It was the match between Kenya and Korea.

The match kicked off, all the players in gusto. There was pandemonium in the whole stadium. Kinyanjui from Kenya sat next to Jit Folm Park.

“Eotteohge jinae?” Jit said.

“Habari yako?”Kinyanjui rather asked having not heard what Jit said.

“Nan dangsin-ui eon-eoleul ihaehal su,”Jit responded.

“Siielewi lugha yako,”Kinyanjui said after confirming that he could not comprehend the language at all.“Nan yeong-eo malhal su,”Jit said,“yeong-eo hal jul su issseubnikka?”“Naweza zungumza Kiingereza.Can you speak English?”Kinyanjui involved his less-practicd English.

What the two new friends did not know was that they were saying the same thing but in different languages. Upon realizing this they were filled with felicity. Meanwhile,rain started falling. First it titillated in light showers that washed the sudation of the players away but later became noxious when it could not allow the match to continue.“Hey,you did not tell me your name. I am Jit Folm Park from Korea,and you?”Jit asked.“Park?I have heard of Park,might you be related?I know him,”Kinyanjui said.“Yes,he is my cousin. I am sure you are talking of Ji Sung Park,the one in the pitch,”Jit replied.“Oh,good news. I am Kinyanjui. Kinyanjui Kimanjuru,and in case of confusion you can just call me KK,”Kinyanjui who did not want to say he loved his nick name more said.“Oh!Kenyan Chui. I have seen a Kenyan Chui when I toured the game reserve. Are you named after it?”Jit asked. The rain had now become too heavy to allow any more talking. They had to go to their hotels and wait until when the match would be repeated.

Surprisingly,they met in the hotel. They had booked the same place. “The match has been postponed to tomorrow in the evening,hoping it will not be raining. That  is a good time because I will have attended all my classes. Then  I will fly back. I hope there are afternoon flights from Kenya to Pretoria,if not I will have to do on-line classes,”Jit started the new conversation.

“Sure. Where do you study?”KK asked.

“I teach. I teach in Manahaim college in Nairobi Kenya.”

“I have heard about that college.”

“Why don’t you join then?Am sure it is as much fun learning Korean as it is in teaching.”

Kinyanjui had heard about the college and had contemplated to join it. After registering, before commencing his classes, he became among the fortunate ones to win a ticket to watch the match between Kenya and Korea in South Africa. He was very determined to learn the language because other than aspiring to be multi-lingual, he very much wanted to know about the culture of the Koreans that he had always fancied watching in movies. As the chatted along, he realized that Jit was a pedagogue in the same institution. He was certain that in making friends with Jit, he was increasing his chances of learning more.   He was also happy that in case they lacked anything to talk about, they would talk about the college. He ordered for two glasses of mango juice as they sat at one of the clean tables.

“I am happy Korean studies have been introduced in Kenya.”

“I am happy Korean studies have been introduced in Kenya, ”KK repeated his statement after coughing a feigned cough and getting no answer. He wanted to know how much really knowing the language would help him in knowing the culture of the Koreans. Jit had actually heard the statement but was hesitant to answer because it would hijack his train of thoughts that he had just got his mind into. He was cogitating: how the knowledge of the Korean language in Kenya would facilitate international relations between the two countries; how so many aspects of life between the two countries would be shared and how living life would become an easy task. He knew that that would completely change the relationship between the two countries from what has been over the last few decades into a new dawn. “Oh, yes, I am sorry, I am happy as well,” he answered.

KK told Jit of his great desire in knowing the Korean culture and Jit was even willing to talk more about it. He told KK how the Korean language is used to maintain and convey the culture of the Koreans and how the implications of language are completely entwined in culture. He said that teaching a foreign language is also to teaching the paradigm of a foreign culture. He explained that as teachers they instruct their students on the cultural background of the language usage, choose culturally appropriate teaching styles and explore culturally based linguistic differences to promote understanding instead of misconceptions or prejudice. Therefore,in only attending the class,one had already started learning the culture of the Koreans and their way of living.

“You should always compare and contrast the cultural differences in language usage especially the grammatical and idiom usage in their cultural contexts between your culture and ours,”Jit said as he sipped his blended-mango juice.“I do not really see the importance of this,”KK said as he sipped his too. He was keeping pace with Jit’s the drinking of the juice. He did not want to finish earlier or later than Jit. Within himself he knew he was also learning culture in this way.“Visualizing and understanding the differences will enable you to correctly judge the appropriate uses and causation of language idiosyncrasies. You will fully understand why certain things in Korea are said,their background as well as their application in our culture,”Jit continued further. KK was attentively listening and nodding his head in approval.“For example,you have noticed that our greetings follow strict rules,one shakes hands after the common bow. Is this not different from you culture? You learn the greeting etiquette in the Korean language class and you are later to apply this practically. If you understand a difference like this one,you will fully understand the background as well as its application in our culture-a person of a lower status bows to the person of higher status but it is the senior person who initiates the handshake. The person who initiates the bow says…” “Man-na-suh pan-gop-sumnida,”KK cut in.

“Which means?”Jit asked.

KK started laughing. With this Jit knew he did not what that meant and started laughing too,not with KK but at KK.KK was a person who loved humor. He stopped laughing all of a sudden and said,“pleased to meet you,”then stated laughing again. He was right.

“Let me recapitulate all these. I have learned the greeting etiquette in your language. I have hereby known how you Koreans go about the communicational protocol when you meet. The conclusion is that I have known something about your culture regarding communication,am I right?”KK asked.

“Very!You are a good student. You can as well become a language pedagogue!”Jit said as he laughed and sipped all the remaining juice. KK did not want to look as if he was doing like Jit was doing.“That is what I am aiming at,”he said as he laughed and sipped all his juice as well,he had forgotten and done it,“if I had a mustache like yours I would teach.”Both of them laughed hysterically.“You are very hilarious,”Jit commented.“That is my talent ,”KK bragged. “Really?It must be. You see,when you have realized your talent,and you are learning the Korean language,it is true that you will put more effort in learning the language that is mostly applied in your field of interest. What am I saying,you,for example will be interested in knowing more about the language that the comedians in Korea mostly use. In this way,you will end up knowing about the cultural behavior of them. Another person will be interested in the artists,politicians,or even the business people’s language. Eventually different aspects of culture will be comprehended. Has the introduction of the Korean language in Kenya not taught the Kenyans the Korean culture?”

“It really has because all these things that you are telling me would not have been known. That is true,”Jit answered.“That was meant to be a rhetorical question,it needed no answer,”Jit said and they both started laughing. “You never told me you were a comedian,”KK complained. “I never told you I am not a comedian too,” Jit defended himself,but actually,he was not.

“Jit,but you know almost every kind of practical activity has today created a school of its own , and  created a group of specialized intellectuals of a higher level to teach in these schools. Thus, alongside the older, traditional type of schooling where everything taught was alike,don’t you think that the differences in schooling will portray aspects of culture that differ?”KK asked after thinking hard to formulate this question. He had now put his English language into full use.

“I agree. Today has seen a widespread educational crisis and this can be precisely linked to the fact that the process of differentiation and specialization in education has taken place chaotically, without clear and precise principles, without a well thought out and consciously fixed plan which has not only resulted to different modes of information delivery but actually totally different delivered information,”Jit agreed, “however the background of the teaching still remains the same,based on the same culture of the people teaching. What they learned was based on a certain culture,and fundamentally that shall pass into them and that is what they will deliver. This case in the reality does not fully apply to Korea because as you know our country is homogeneous  and in spite of having gotten different education paradigms,those who teach the  language are still from the same culture and as much as you are learning this language,the culture will be transmitted to you. In fact the mode of teaching is something to learn from. We do not teach in the same way that Kenyans teach hence this will also teach you something about our culture if you are learning our language,our way of teaching and our way of learning as from our culture is what will really be portrayed in this,”Jit continued explaining further. He had set an objective of explaining to KK how the introduction of the Korean language in Kenya was promoting the understanding of the culture of Koreans. So far he had partly achieved his objective. 

“It seems that I am not the only one interested in knowing your culture,you also want me to,”KK said.

“We are promoting the knowledge of the language very much. That is why we are even offering the  learning of the language at a price close to free at our institution. For those who perform excellently we are offering scholarships to them to go and learn more about our culture in Korea,practically. When they are equipped with the knowledge of the language they can become ethnographers in Korea. Is that not a good idea?”Jit asked.

“That is a rhetorical question,”KK replied. They both laughed to the joke,this time laughing with each other.

Dusk had already now started creeping in. It was the waiter who came to them and said,“I am sorry to interrupt you sirs,I guess you are discussing business. You have been sitting here the whole afternoon and have only taken juice,would you mind having anything else?” “Oh it is already dark. No thank you. I need to take bath first then watch world news before eating. Perhaps my friend here will not mind,”Jit said. “No thank you. I am also doing the same,”KK said as they both stood up to leave for their rooms. One thing was now clear in his mind,and he was more determined to implement it after watching the match and going back to Kenya,that his learning of the language of the Koreans would give him a clear understanding of their way of life and he would exemplary hard in this. It was now evident to him that language begets culture.

PLAY TITLE: WEDDING IN COURT PLAYWRIGHT: NGORU SOLOMON IRUNGU

PLAY TITLE:	WEDDING IN COURT PLAYWRIGHT: NGORU SOLOMON IRUNGU

SYNOPSIS
The play is in a court setting where Kenneth Dixter has been accused of several crimes against the state and civil wrongs against Solomon and his fiancée Nancy. Dixter seems to be winning the case until the prosecuting counsel brings vindicating evidence that turns the whole case around to see Dixter given a mind torturing punishment before being sentenced. This exonerating evidence is the heart of the play as it amalgamates a complicated love story, blackmails, humour, suspense and a colourful wedding that never was. This works in a flashback and forth style, play within a play and an instance where the play starts at the end and rolls backwards.

LIST OF CHARACTERS
NANCY Venus (Lady to be married)
Solomon Potter (Groom-to-be)
Kenneth Dixter (The prosecuted)
Judge
Prosecuting and defence counsel
Court secretary
Elder ( Solomon’s father)
Pastor (Kenneth’s father)
Villagers
Voices

ACT 1
PROLOGUE

(From the audience, Kimash and some agitated villagers frog-march Kenneth Dixter towards the stage)
KIMASH:
We want him crushed! Flat to the ground!
VILLAGERS:
Yes! Flat to the ground!
KIMASH:
We want him crushed! Flat to the ground!
VILLAGERS:
Yes! Flat to the ground!
KENNETH
What? Please. You mean Solomon is…
KIMASH:
Oh, yes, he is…alive. Now come, you tormenter of souls, to the Court of justice of love!
VILLAGERS:
Yes! To the Courts of justice!
NANCY
(Entering from the stage) No! Wait! Please wait. Let the young man be!
VILLAGERS:
What! Aaii!
KIMASH:
No Nancy! Not after all he did to you! Not after what he did to me. We almost died remember?
NANCY
Yes my Love…
KIMASH:
Then why my Love? Let us deal with him perpendicularly!
VILLAGERS:
Yes! Perpendicularly!
NANCY
No my Love…Give him a chance let him open the curtains to the past!
VILLAGERS:
The past? Oh no! Not again!
NANCY
Yes, the past explains the present and defines the future. Ladies and Gentlemen, here comes the court, let’s all gather in the court of justice of love!
VILLAGERS:
(As they chant away to the stage) We want him crushed! Flat to the ground! Yes, flat to the ground! We want him crushed! Flat to the ground! (Fading) We want him crushed! Flat to the ground! We want him crushed! Flat to the ground!
ALL:
We present…WEDDING IN COURT!

SCENE ONE
(Curtains open, a court setting is visible. The defence and prosecuting counsel are in their postions. Mr Dixter in the docks)

COURT SECRETARY:
All arise, court in session, Justice Winnie Pharis presiding.
JUDGE:
(Enters and takes position) In the matter of Mr. Solomon Potter and the state versus Mr. Kenneth Dixter,(Facing Kenneth) Mr. Kenneth Dixter…
KENNETH
Yes your honour…
JUDGE:
You are here-by charged with the illegal interference of Solomon’s wedding, attempted murder, illegal possession of fire arms, causing public unrest and attempting to marry one Ms NANCY Venus against her will. This is contrary to(Flipping through the pages of a book) chapter four article 45, article 26 and articles 28, 36 and 39 respectively of the constitution of this land. Do you still maintain your plea of not guilty?
KENNETH
Yes your honour!
JUDGE:
Defence Counsel…
DEFENCE COUNSEL:
Yes your honour.
JUDGE:
To What are your concluding remarks?
DEFENCE COUNSEL:
Thank you your honour. You honour, my client here, Mr. Kenneth Dixter is wrongly accused here-in of crimes and civil wrongs that he never committed. In fact if pulling a beautiful naive young girl from the jaws of an uncivilized wedding where there is no love is wrong, then I…
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Objection your honour! Enticing one with the prospects of ones authority and all the aforementioned wrongs only to abuse ones dignity is with all intent and purposes a crime your honour!
JUDGE:
Objection overruled! Defence Counsel, you may proceed!
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Your honour, my client here has a bad stomach, we have to hurry the case or else…
JUDGE:
Order! Order in my court!
DEFENCE COUNSEL:
Thank you your honour, based on all the evidence adduced here in this court, my client is clearly innocent and should be acquitted of all charges! I rest my case.
JUDGE:
Prosecuting counsel?
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Yes your honour.
JUDGE:
You may proceed.

PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Thank you your honour. Your honour, the prosecuting counsel would like to call in, its surprise witnesses if it pleases the court!
DEFENCE COUNSEL:
Objection you honour!
JUDGE:
Objection Overruled! If the potential witnesses have the ability to turn this entire case around, then so be it! Prosecuting counsel, you may proceed.
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Thank you your honour. I hereby call to the stands Ms NANCY Venus!
KENNETH
What?!
DEFENCE COUNSEL:
Objection Your honour!
JUDGE:
Overrulled! (Enters Nancy) Prosecuting Counsel, please proceed.
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Thank you your honour! (To the Nancy) Nancy.
NANCY
Yes your honour.
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Do you swear to tell this honorable court the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth?
NANCY
Yes your honour.
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Please proceed.

ACT 2
SCENE 1
FLASHBACK
(Music plays as the court setting changes into a village setting. Blue lighting fills the stage.)
NANCY
(In soliloquy amid soft music. NANCY is singing)
Oh, don’t I look gorgeous, this beautiful Venus girl of Kimash!
Look at my body, my complexion, height and beauty,
not to mention this sweet heart that Kimash really treasures.
I just came from the salon,
don’t you love my hair style-a combination of blow-dry, pussy-cat and mosodo.
Don’t I look like a real illusion?n instrument that you will love the percussion?
I am the real salvation, for the redemption of the affliction,
of course the solution… for Kimash.
KENNETH
(Enters whistling. Music stops) The fantasies of the book you gave me have been overcome by your pressure on me to return it.
NANCY
Njoro, what are you doing here?
(Asides) coming to spoil my time as I wait for my love.
KENNETH
Oh, what a question, you know I am your love and…
NANCY
Your what? Listen Njoro, I have told you time and again, I have a lover, my wonderful Kimash…
KENNETH
(Laughing hysterically)Hear even the name, Solomon Potter, (laughs sarcastically) Potter…What is it with you that guy? He has no swag, doesn’t know how to dress, dance, walk, or even talk.(Laughs)Look at me, I am swaggarific, so swaggarific.
NANCY
Well, will I eat swag? Will swag take me out; pay my bills or treat me well? Will swag love me? Can I love swag back? Will swag make love to me?
KENNETH
What?
NANCY
Well, take it or swallow it, Kimash and I are getting married in a couple of days.
KENNETH
So, this is true? I knew it, but you know what, unless my father is not the high pastor of this village, and you know that no other person can legalise the wedding. My father knows I want you.
NANCY
(Asides)You see, he wants me, he doesn’t love me, just wants me.
KENNETH
(Asides)If only I could get this beauty for a night.
The wedding will not continue!
NANCY
The wedding will continue!

KENNETH
The wedding will not continue!
NANCY
I said the wedding will continue! And you think you are intelligent?
(Asides)This is a ndongomothi, salamander, the leg of a fish!
Well, I am very sure you will succeed, because you know Kimash’s father is not the elder of the village.
KENNETH
And what will that feeble man do? Elder, elder, elder means nothing!
NANCY
You really think so? Look at what happened then…
(They freeze as the pastor, Kenneth Dixter’s father and the elder, Solomon’s father appear on stage)
SCENE 2
PLAY WITHIN A PLAY
PASTOR:
(Reciting in Latin) Ave Maria…SOME LINES MISSIN
ELDER:
SOME LINES MISSING
PASTOR:
Oh, surely, God is great! What brings you to my house today elderly man? (Sarcastically) What have I done to deserve such honours?
ELDER:
I know you are a powerful man, they call you a total man, very holy, the high pastor, the only one in the village and my visit here is a privilege to you!
PASTOR:
Privilege? What privilege elder?
ELDER:
Well, you know you are the only one who can grace weddings in this village, and my daughter NANCY Venus is getting married. This will earn you reputation as the officiator of weddings.
PASTOR:
Of course I know Venus is getting married, but we have not planned for it.
ELDER:
I know of your plot with your son, but you will not succeed! This wedding must continue!
PASTOR:
The wedding will not continue!
ELDER:
The wedding will continue!
PASTOR:
The wedding will not continue, you parrot!
ELDER:
Oh, yes, the wedding will continue! Who is the loudest man in the village? Whose
voice is heard most in the village? Who is the most trusted man in the village?
PASTOR:
Definitely it is you elder, but what has that to do with my word that this wedding
will not continue?
SCENE 3
FLASHFORWARD
ELDER:
(Calling)My people, gracious people of Kitambaya?
VOICES:
Yes mzee.
ELDER:
(Amid murmurs) Do you want to know how Pastor Nathaniel Dixter got to this village?
VOICES:
Yes mzee.
ELDER:
He was excommunicated from his village for killing his wife. He also sodomised young boys who came for catechism. He introduced his son Kenneth Dixter to drugs. And he has been embezzling the church funds.
VOICES:
Yes mzee.
ELDER:
Don’t you think he deserves castigation, preferably burning him?
VOICES:
Yes mzee. Burn him! Burn him! Burn him! (Fading) Burn him! Burn him!
PASTOR:
(Amid the noises) This is not true, he is only here to malign my name.
ELDER:
(Calling)My people, gracious people of Kitambaya?
VOICES:
Yes mzee. (Amplified voices) Burn him! Burn him! Burn him! (Fading) Burn him! Burn him!
ELDER:
(Amid murmurs) Well, listen to the voices. The voices and noises. Noises of them without choices… (Laughs)
END OF FLASHFORWARD
SCENE 4
PASTOR:
Are you trying to blackmail me?
ELDER:
Blackmail, white mail, blue mail, blueprint, whatever you call it, this wedding must continue. The people of Kitambaya will believe me.
PASTOR:
You win! Don’t try to tarnish my name. This wedding takes place in a couple of days, presided by I and nobody will stop it!
(They exit)
END OF PLAY WITHIN A PLAY

SCENE 5
NANCY
(Sarcastically)Surely this wedding will not continue!
KENNETH
I have to see my father. (Exits)
KIMASH:
Oh, my angel, you really look gorgeous today…as always. You are fearfully and wonderfully made, but you are more wonderfully made than fearfully. You are not fearful darling, I beg to object that.

NANCY
(Embracing him)Solomon…
KIMASH:
Sshhh…Kimash!
NANCY
My Kimash…hahaha, you have swag.
KIMASH:
Let us leave honey and get ready for the wedding. (They exit)

SCENE 6
(Wedding setting. Music, today is my wedding day)
PASTOR:
Dearly beloved, we are all gathered here in this holy ceremonial matrimonial ceremony, to celebrate the union in marriage between one…NANCY Venus and Solomon Potter…who also happens to be the son of our village elder…Mr. Onesmus Potter. We always say, “What the Lord has coalesced, let no thunder put asunder!”,but if there is anyone with an objection towards this union, let them speak now, or hold their peace forever.
(Silence. A young man stands and walks towards the couple. Everyone is perplexed. He moves and takes a photo then goes back to his seat. People laugh and clap)
If that is so, I hereby declare you…
(A gunshot is heard. Everyone is gasps)
KENNETH
(Enters holding a gun) The wedding will not continue! This is supposed to be my girl.
(Everyone tries to speak telling him to put the fire arm down)
Let not anyone dare to come near me. I must kill this girl.(He raises his gun and points it towards Nancy)
EVERYONE:
No!No…

SLOWMOTION AMID DRUMS
(Kenneth shoots at NANCY but Kimash jumps infront and the bullet hits him. Kenneth shoots again and Kimash does the same. NANCY collapses down as Kimash lies aside with blood oozing. Kenneth tries shooting again but his gun has no bullets. He starts running away. Some agitated villagers run after him. Meanwhile NANCY nurses Potter who wakes and follows the villagers leaving Nancy)
(After a while, from the audience, Kimash and some agitated villagers frog-march Kenneth Dixter towards the stage)

ACT 3
SCENE I

KIMASH:
We want him crushed! Flat to the ground!
VILLAGERS:
Yes! Flat to the ground!
KENNETH
What? Please. You mean Solomon is…
KIMASH:
Oh, yes, he is…alive. Now come, you tormenter of souls, to the Court of justice of love!
VILLAGERS:
Yes! To the Courts of justice!
NANCY
(Entering) No! Wait! Please wait. Let the young man be!
VILLAGERS:
What! Aaii!
KIMASH:
No Nancy! Not after all he did to you! Not after what he did to me. We almost died remember?
NANCY
Yes my Love…
KIMASH:
Then why my Love? Let us deal with him perpendicularly!
VILLAGERS:
Yes! Perpendicularly!
NANCY
No my Love…Give him a chance let him open the curtains to the past!
VILLAGERS:
The past? Oh no! Not again!
NANCY
Yes, the past explains the present and defines the future. Ladies and Gentlemen, here comes the court, let’s all gather in the court of justice of love!
VILLAGERS:
(As they chant away to the stage) We want him crushed! Flat to the ground! Yes, flat to the ground! We want him crushed! Flat to the ground! (Fading) We want him crushed! Flat to the ground! We want him crushed! Flat to the ground!
END OF FLASHBACK

SCENE 2
(Back to court setting)
NANCY
Your honour, that is the true account of all that happened up to when we brought the culprit here. Thank you your honour. Thank you counsel
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Thank you Ms. Nancy. Your honour, my witness testimony has just proven to us beyond reasonable doubt that the accused is guilty of charged!
KENNETH
Lies! All that are lies your honour!
NANCY
Please taste a dose of your own medicine in silence Dixter!
KENNETH
You are only out to malign my name!
JUDGE:
Order in my court! Kenneth Dixter, you are here-by charged with…
(Kenneth whispers something to the defense counsel)
PROCECUTING COUNSEL:
Your honour, my client here has a bad stomach, we request that he goes for a call before the verdict…
JUDGE:
(To the prosecuting council) Overruled! Let him wait for the verdict.(To the defendant) Kenneth Dixter, you are here-by charged with the illegal interference of Solomon’s wedding, attempted murder, illegal possession of fire arms, causing public unrest and attempting to marry Ms NANCY Venus against her will.
Following the evidence given here-in, this honorable court rules in favour of the plaintiff and it hereby finds you guilty as charged.
You are hereby sentenced to attending the wedding and seeing Potter kiss the bride.
Further to that you shall serve life imprisonment with hard labour! Case closed! The court has now allowed the defendant to take the call before being taken to the cells and adjourning the session.
(Kenneth is taken out by the court Askari. After a moment of silence and murmurs, the askari returns)
ASKARI:
Your… Your honour…He…He has escaped!
COURT ATTENDANTS:
What?
(Everyone arises and starts exiting in slow motion. A dying closure of music)

THE END

Copyright Protected 2012

RUIRU VISIT; THE HYPERBOLED STORY

RUIRU VISIT; THE HYPERBOLED STORY

Ruiru, a developing town situated 20 kilometers from the capital city, has had tremendous development as seen from the numerous epitomes over the past few years. This development is holistic, and it is geared towards making a nationally competitive town within Kiambu County. In the recent municipality rankings, the Ruiru municipal council ranked fourth. This is attributed to among other benchmarks, its development progression.
Last Sunday, September 30, 2012, Sunday Nation- Young Nation page 5 featured a story by Sharon Ogugu on transport in Ruiru. The story is in the in the jpeg format above. Sharon, whom I would rightly argue that she is merely an entrant in Ruiru, exaggerated her story beyond proportion.
Foremost, there are no vans in Ruiru. There are only mini-matatus and just a few matatus in the route she travelled. The mini-matatus are new Nissans and Mazdas while the matatus are good-condition vehicles. As a matter of fact, the previous Suzuki Marutis operating in the region, which have hitherto been phased off, do not match the description of the “van” she boarded. Where would the women carrying ciondos and the boy with the live chicken be coming from for them to take a van at the bus terminus? The market is about 500 meters from the market. PSVs take people at the bus stop that is about 120 meters from the market, called ‘Mashaku’.
On Saturday afternoons, due to the influx of the people to the market, fares are hiked to Sh 20. The only way Sharon would have paid Sh 10 is as will inform you hereafter.
Ruiru has farms as well, it being an urban center notwithstanding. But in my more-than-ten years of residence in the town, I have never seen people travelling from the rural part with the said jembes, sacks of potatoes and live hens. It beats all logic why someone would have their bicycle tied to the van instead of riding it to prisons, just 1.6 kilometers away. Prisons, as the name suggests, is a prison. We however call it college as a euphemism for the center that not only rehabilitates but also trains inmates. The road to Prisons is being carpeted by the Ministry for Roads and Public Works in collaboration with the Council. I therefore refute the insinuation that Sharon’s van, the kiosk, got filled with dust.
As much as Ruiru has its own problems that we are in the process of shunning, it is not as bad as it was portrayed in the story, ‘Ruiru Visit’. It is a town with popular participation in development, where residents hardly think just of what the town can do for them but also what they can do for it.
Sharon Ogugu succeeded in creating humour in her story. It would have however been more humourous were it in concomitance with empirical information and the right tableau of the town.
I however do not rule out the idea of the old van she was in, and the Sh 10 fare that t=she paid. It is possible, and most likely that the passengers in it were all headed for Shiku’s place and therefore found it cheaper for them to hire the van.
My condolences to Shiku and her family as well.

A TEACHER IN KENYA

A TEACHER IN KENYA

Teachers are back to class and are teaching with all zeal given the new salary rise.

A SENTIMENTAL LOVE POEM: ANGEL CISTOCOLA

A SENTIMENTAL LOVE POEM: ANGEL CISTOCOLA

An angel so immaculate, God did just calculate,
Beautiful I can’t exaggerate, my heart she might evacuate,
Met her on the merry new year, to my heart she came so near,
Her eyes were just so clear, to her heart I did steer,
Angel cistocola, a bleeding heart.

Her talk was fine intoxicating like wine, walking so divine,
My hope one to nine, come be mine we dine,
In whole did she shine, my heart she did reign,
Normalcy was she crying, her tears me drying,
Angel cistocola, a bleeding heart.

Dangling dapperly for the dancehall, no action is ever small,
Adventuring with my damsel, joyfully in a dandle,
A dandelion and a dandle, a treat to the tango,
Darling down the alley, a give I never worry,
Angel cistocola, a bleeding heart.

Comes a dandy with a dander, to me seems a stranger,
Charges swinishly in anger, oh my I see danger,
Draws out a dagger, and strikes like anaconda,
Surprisingly I do ponder, oblivious of his vigor,
Angel cistocola, a bleeding heart.
Walks away the stranger in rage, leaving us on the stage,
We stare in trepidation, he has caused a commotion,
Why on cistocola who is mine, never can he reign,
A heart he did strain, not washable in rain,
Angel cistocola, a bleeding heart.

Stranger caused mental disturbance, had been there in exclusion,
Tried much to quarantine, he did not meet the qualification,
In good faith I did for love, nothing did that move,
Why did I ever dream, yet there was him,
Angel cistocola, a bleeding heart.

I will hide you in mine heart groove, if you strive to love,
I assure we will survive, to eternity we will live,
Empress you will be, after everything I give,
Come baby come, mutually let us be,
Angel cistocola, a bleeding heart.

Together we contribute, of love the attribute,
Living with no worry, hurry but don’t hurry,
Let us modify, and live in no cry,
Love baby love, live baby live,
Angel cistocola, a bleeding heart.

IS YOUR CAREER A PROFESSION? THE SEVEN BENCHMARKS OF A PROFESSION

Most of the occupations that people are working in are not professions. This follows the fact that there are just a few of them meeting the qualifications of a profession.There are seven conditions that a profession meets over and above the usual occupations.
The people working in the occupation must have esoteric knowledge and profound proficiency which is not exhibited by the other members of the public. This should enable the former to serve the society using these skills,for example accountants.
The members of that profession must prove their knowledge and skills beyond reasonable doubt by passing an exam that has been set,supervised and marked by a recognised professional body like the university,KASNEB or ICM.
The members must publicly take an oath offering themselves to serve humanity with their skills.
Members of the occupation must have the capacity to exercise a high level of individual autonomy and independence of their judgement in their practice;avoiding decisions that would discredit their profession.
The occupation must have a profession body that must have the power to regulate professional practice and to admit members before they begin the practice or expel them should they misbehave.
The occupation must have a professional code of conduct to regulate and guide how the profession is practised.
The members must have a professional licence to practise their tasks.
An occupation that meets nothing less but the aforegoing is what is recognised as a profession in the entire world.